Dyslexia is a learning disorder that involves difficulty in reading due to problems identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words (i.e. decoding). It is also called reading disability. It affects areas of the brain that process language and usually occurs among the students.
Dyslexia involves differences and failures in the cognitive processes and phonological or visual processing, characterized by difficulties at the beginning of alphabetization, impairing the ability of reading, writing, and orthography.
Many studies have been performed on dyslexia describing the level of difficulty and improved reading abilities of individuals with dyslexia. Some authors also stated that students with dyslexia show better reading performance in reading automatized naming tests in correspondence with their age and schooling level. An international study indicated that remediation programs for dyslexia, enhance the metaphonological skill, and reading fluency in students with reading difficulties. Remediation programs are highly effective short-term interventions of tutoring individuals with reading difficulties, aimed at increasing speed and comprehension by correcting reading habits.
Though, a lot of literature is available on speech-language intervention studies but hardly any study emphasizes the use of rapid automatized naming as an intervention strategy in dyslexia. The aim of the under-discussion study was to elaborate a remediation program with rapid naming and reading for dyslexia and to verify its clinical significance for students with reading difficulties.
Bianca Dos and Simone Capellini performed this study with the approval of the Ethics Committee of the Paulista State University in 2018. The methodology involves selecting students from 3rd to the 5th grade of elementary school, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, with an interdisciplinary diagnosis of dyslexia. The specific diagnosis of dyslexia was performed by a team of speech therapist, neuropsychologist, and occupational therapist. All students were submitted to pre- and post-test applications to the following test protocols:
- Metalinguistic and reading ability test: this protocol is composed of syllabic and phonemic identification of real words and pseudowords reading.
- Reading comprehension evaluation protocol: it consists of eight multiple-choice questions that are answered by students after reading.
- Rapid automatized naming test: composed of four boards with stimuli of letters, colors, digits, and objects. The ability of students to name each of them as fast as they can is evaluated in it.
The remediation program established for this study, composed of ten sessions totally:
- 2 initial assessment sessions
- 6 sessions of naming program (each of XNUMX minutes)
- 2 final evaluation sessions
To analyze the clinical significance of the remediation program of rapid automatized naming and reading, the authors used the JT method.
JT Method of Analysis: A comparative analysis between pre and post-intervention scores with the goal of calculating reliable change index and clinical significance of the intervention.
The authors characterized that students with dyslexia showed improvement in automatized rapid naming test and JT analysis verified the effectiveness of elaborated remediation program by showing positive changes in individual responding when both pre and post-test interventions compared.
The results exhibit clinical significance in the tests of
- Syllable addition
- Nonwords repetition
- Real words and pseudowords reading
- Reading comprehension
- Rapid automatized naming.
The improvement in metaphonological skills is of great interest, which have not been directly trained. According to the double deficit theory , phonological competence and rapid naming contribute to reading ability. According to the authors, it is possible that the improvement in reading skills also favored the metaphonological component.
Although the elaborated program is efficient and applicable as an intervention instrument based on scientific evidence for students with dyslexia, there are some limitations i.e small sample size and the transient interval between sessions to check the efficacy of the intervention implemented.
Hence, it is concluded that, The elaborated program is applicable and efficient as an intervention tool but further research is needed in the future to use it as a regular long term-treatment in dyslexia. This can be achieved by analyzing the efficacy of elaborated programs with a longer interval between pre and post-testing and using a larger sample size in future studies.
 Santos, Bianca dos and Capellini, Simone Aparecida. Remediation program with automatized naming and reading for students with dyslexia: elaboration and clinical significance. CoDAS [online]. 2020, vol. 32, n.3