In recent years we have created several free tools to enhance reading. In this article we try to make some order by indicating, for each phase, the most suitable tools. We decided to follow the path from the letters to the passage proposed in the very interesting study recently published by Squicciarini and others (Dyslexia, vol. 3, 2019), adding to their proposal our tools for creating activities. To deepen their study with methods and results, however, we refer you to reading the article.
IDEA: As suggested in the article by Squicciarini and colleagues, already mentioned, at the level of the letters you can use the technique of Precision teaching, creating strings of letters to read in 15 seconds, passing to the next only when the previous one has been read without errors. Initially, the letters that are confused visually and phonologically will be avoided, then these can be introduced and, finally, uppercase and lowercase letters can be mixed.
TOOL: In the initial phase it can be useful to arrange the letters vertically, and for this you can create the list of letters with Read Tachistoscope and press the "Create list in Pdf" button. As for mirror letters, the program may be useful Search Solver (by putting "mirror letters" in the settings) or, in a more playful form, Hawk eye.
IDEA: Tasks for identifying and reading syllables with ever greater variations, gradually increasing the difficulty: CV - VC - CVC - CCV - CCVC - CCCVC.
INSTRUMENTS: You can always use it Read Tachistoscope which allows the creation of syllable lists or, for greater control over the parameters, SearchSolver. Furthermore, in the PDF card generator, you will find plenty of syllable barrage and syllable search within a word or string of letters.
From syllables to words (syllabic fusion)
IDEA: Starting from the syllables learned in the previous part or, if the child is already familiar with the syllables, you can play fusion games of the written syllables and read words with an increasingly complex syllabic structure.
INSTRUMENTS: Syllable by syllable allows you to show words one piece at a time, keeping the rest transparent or semi-transparent. By setting the exposure speed it is possible to increase the complexity of the exercise. The secret code allows you to play at reconstructing the word by associating a number with each syllable and reconstructing the word at the end. In GameCenter readingalso, you will find several syllable completion games, with bisyllabic words (Final CV), trisyllabic (Initial CVC, Median CV e Final CV).
Whole words (lexical phase)
IDEA: The lexical intervention is based on the reading of word lists or on their timed presentation.
INSTRUMENTS: Read Tachistoscope, with its great flexibility in the construction of the lists and in the setting of the parameters, is the main tool in this phase. In addition, it gives the possibility to print the newly generated list in pdf format, allowing you to work on both the time exposure and the actual reading.
IDEA: Enhance reading at the sentence level while working on understanding what has been read.
INSTRUMENTS: The riddles (activity 1 – activity 2 – activity 3) can be a fun and "ecological" way to work on sentences. The game Identikit combines reading sentences with keeping information in memory.
IDEA: The final phase, the real goal of reading, is to get to decipher and understand the passages. It is certainly advantageous to do this type of activity with texts that arouse interest in the boy / girl.
INSTRUMENTS: The web-app Tachibrano it allows you to paste a text and set the parameters relating to the scanning speed and the type of highlighter to be applied to the word, in addition to the transparency effect of the rest of the piece. In the GameCenter reading, finally, you find 4 tracks (The bow – The arrow – The target – The position) in which the goal is to find the missing word. A more demanding task, which also involves the flexibility component, is that of reading alternate passages, where two passages of different colors are mixed by alternating the words of each. You can generate alternate songs with our web-app.
Finally, in the GameCenter reading you will find dozens of other letter composition games, word / image association and spelling decision, as well as crossword puzzles and crossword puzzles!
Two words to explain the difference between the vaccine (which generally requires only one administration or periodic administrations, such as every XNUMX years (as with the hepatitis B vaccine) and the antiviral drug (such as the cocktail for HIV-positive patients, who ingest molecules through daily pills that attack parts of the virus, to directly destroy it). The vaccine consists of the administration of molecules that mimick parts of the virus without being infectious, so that our immune system can develop a memory to recognize those parts (that particular type of antigen) when the virus comes back on the doorstep...this memory in some cases lasts all the life, in other cases (like hepatitis B) a decade or so. Once this immune memory has been developed in our body, the pathogen will have to deal with an extremely powerful arsenal of anti-viral mechanisms (orchestrated by our immune cells) that will kill it in no time (in fact, after we get vaccinated, if we get the flu, we get rid of it without even realizing it...our (memory) immune cells know what to do at that point). Another way to develop this memory is by letting ourselves to be infected — as we've done with lots of infections, with low mortality and low morbidity. The antiviral drug is a molecule that acts against the pathogen too, but it does so on its own — the basic problem of an antiviral is that it doesn't last forever, because everything we eat (the pills) is excreted from our body, in a few hours or few days — but there are also molecules that can float, once you put them into the circle, for quite a few days ...(or techniques that modern pharmacology has been studying for a decade or so, aimed to transform molecules with the objective of extending their permanence in the tissues after being administered, see above: nanotechnology therapy). Bibliography
Squicciarini, Nicoletti and Stella (2019), Re-education of reading based on scientific evidence: from sublexical to lexical, Dyslexia vol. 16, n.3