ABCDEFGILMOPQRSTV

A


Voice accommodation: tendency to make one's verbal expression more and more similar to the vocal characteristics of the interlocutor (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37).

Non fluent aphasia: [aphasia] Aphasia characterized by poor production, short sentences, difficult articulation, impaired prosody; there may be agrammatism. The criteria for distinguishing fluent from non-fluent aphasia are: the presence of verbal apraxia, the length of the sentence, the amount of speech, the presence of agrammatism or slang and prosody. In general, the presence of verbal apraxia and the length of the sentence are considered above all: if there are no sentences consisting of at least six words (at least one sentence out of ten) it is generally non-fluent aphasia (Basso, Knowing and re-educating aphasia, 2009: 64).

Afemia: [aphasia] First term of what will later be called Aphasia, coined by Paul Broca to define those who could not express themselves verbally despite having a good understanding.


Affricazione: [language] System process: replacement of a fricative sound with a affricated one. Example: "cagia" for "home" (cf. our article on Phonetics and Phonology)

Variance Analysis (ANOVA): [statistics, research methodology] statistical technique that allows you to compare different groups in a single procedure of falsification of the null hypothesis, by comparing the variability between groups and random variability (see also Bolzani and Canestrari, Logic of the Statistical Test 2015. ).

Anteriorizzazione: [language] System process: replacing a back sound with an anterior one. Example: "tasa" for "home" (cf. our article on Phonetics and Phonology).

aposiopesis: [linguistics] Abrupt interruption of the sentence that does not continue further. As a rhetorical figure, it is intended to allow the reader or listener to guess the rest of the sentence. In the case of aphasias, however, it is often an involuntary effect of not being able to continue due to difficulties in structuring the sentence or problems in the recovery of a term.

Errorless learning: [neuropsychology, memory] memorization technique initially developed for severely amnesic patients, consisting of guided and facilitated learning of information in order to prevent the error and its memorization at an implicit level (see also Errorless Learning in Cognitive Rehabilitation: A Critical Review, 2012; Mazzucchi, Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2012).

Apraxia: [neuropsychology] disturbance of the realization of learned movements, both gestures of use of objects and symbolic gestures. It is not a consequence of an alteration of the motor system, of an intellectual deficit, of an attention deficit or of a deficit in the recognition of objects (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology.

Ideational apraxia: [neuropsychology] apraxia concerning the use of object (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology.

Ideomotor apraxia: [neuropsychology] apraxia which concerns the alteration of unique gestures, both meaningless (on imitation) and symbolic (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology, 2001)

Constructive apraxia: [neuropsychology] type of apraxia that concerns the realization of a geometric figure (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology.

Clothing apraxia: [neuropsychology] apraxia concerning the ability to dress (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology.

Apraxia of the gaze: [neuropsychology] apraxia which involves the alteration of eye movements (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology.

March Apraxia: [neuropsychology] type of apraxia which results in the inability to take steps (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology.

Optic ataxia: [neuropsychology] visual coordination deficit which involves reaching errors with the limb towards a seen object. It is usually caused by brain injury to the dorsal visual pathway. It does not depend on failure to recognize the object to be reached and grasped, however interaction with it at the motor level is difficult (see also Ladàvas and Berti, Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014).

Reliability (or reliability): [psychometry] property of a measuring instrument (test) which indicates the degree of stability of the scores when the measurements are repeated. In other words, it tells us how reliable a test is (see also Weltkovitz, Cohen and Ewen, Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, 2009).

Selective attention: [neuropsychology, attention] component of attention related to the ability to allocate attentional resources on relevant stimuli, reducing the interference of stimuli that are present but irrelevant to the activity to be carried out. The domain of selective attention includes focused attention, divided attention and alternating attention (Vallar et al., Neuropsychological Rehabilitation.

B

Compact Bilingualism (or Multilingualism): [language] when two languages ​​have been learned simultaneously (see Marini ne Language disorders, 2014: 68)

Coordinated Bilingualism (or plurilingualism): [language] when two or more languages ​​have been learned before puberty but not in the family circle (e.g. transfer) (see Marini ne Language disorders, 2014: 68)

Subordinated bilingualism (or plurilingualism): [language] when one or more languages ​​are used using the first language as an intermediary (see Marini ne Language disorders, 2014: 68)

Early sequential bilingualism: [language] when the child has been exposed to the second language after the first, but in any case before the age of eight (see Marini ne Language disorders, 2014: 68)

Late sequential bilingualism: [language] when the child has been exposed to the second language after the first, but after eight years of age (see Marini ne Language disorders, 2014: 68)

Simultaneous bilingualism: [language] when the child has been exposed to two languages ​​since the first days of life (see Marini ne Language disorders, 2014: 68)

C

Carrier sentence (or support phrase): a commonly used phrase that can be used to elicit specific words (eg: "Please, give me ...").

Circumlocution: [linguistics] use of a "turn of words" to refer to a word that cannot be recovered (very frequent in aphasias). Example: "the one to cut bread" to say "knife".

Spelling competence: [learning] the ability to respect the rules and conventions present in our current language that mediate the transformation of the language listened to or thought into language expressed with graphemes (Tressoldi and Cornoldi, 2000, Battery for the assessment of writing and spelling skills in compulsory school)

Augmentative and Alternative Communication (CAA): any communication that replaces or increases verbal language; is an area of ​​clinical practice that seeks to compensate for the temporary or permanent disability of individuals with complex communication needs (ASHA, 2005, cited in Constantine, Building books and stories with the CAA, 2011: 54)

Conduites d'approche: [aphasia] attempt to approach the word through false starts or phonological paraphasias. Example: "la pa ... pasca, pasma, pastia ..." to say "pasta" (see for example Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143 e Mazzucchi, Neuropsychological rehabilitation, 2012)

Confabulation: [neuropsychology] in the context of memory disorders is a "positive" symptom that is configured as the involuntary production of statements or actions inconsistent with the background or past, present or future situation of the subject (From the beard, G. (1993a). Different patterns of confabulation. Cortex, 29, 567-581) - thanks to Ilaria Zannoni

Correlation: [statistics, research methodology] association between two variables such that to variation of one corresponds a variation of the other. The more two variables are associated, the stronger the correlation will be. The correlation varies between the scores of 1 (as one variable increases, a constant increase of high) and -1 (as one variable increases, there is a constant decrease of the other; with a score of 0, there is instead a total absence of correlation between the two variables.
The presence of a correlation, although strong, does not indicate a causal link between the two variables (see also Welkowits, Cohen and Ewen, Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, 2009).

Cueing: [aphasia] minimal, phonemic and / or grapemic suggestion, given in the event that the patient is unable to recover the target word independently (see, for example, Conroy et al., Using phonemic cueing of spontaneous naming to predict item responsiveness to therapy for anomia in aphasia, 2012)

D

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] suppression of neuronal arrival for the target structure. This occurs by lesion of the neurons that are at the origin of the axons that reach the target structure, or by lesion of the axons themselves (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology.

Mental weakness: [neuropsychology] mild form of mental deficiency (see also intellectual deficit or mental retardation), characterized by significantly below average intellectual efficiency (IQ between 70 and 50), difficulty in social adaptation and appearance of deficits during the development period

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] suppression of neuronal arrival for the target structure. This occurs by lesion of the neurons that are at the origin of the axons that reach the target structure, or by lesion of the axons themselves (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology.

Neuronal degeneration: [neuroscience] progressive loss of the specific structure and function of a neuron or group of neurons which may result in their disappearance (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology.

muffling: [language] System process: replacement of a sound with the corresponding deaf. Example: "panana" for "banana" (cf. our article on Phonetics and Phonology)

Standard deviation (mean square deviation): [statistics] estimate of the variability of a set of data, obtained from the square root of the variance. It indicates how much the data is scattered around the average (i.e. how much they deviate on average from it) but, unlike the variance, this parameter is expressed in the same unit of measurement as the average (see also Welkowits, Cohen and Ewen, Statistics for Behavioral Sciences 2015. ).

dysgraphia: [learning] writing with difficulty, without this being attributable to a neurological disorder or an intellectual limit (Ajuriaguerra et al., L'écriture de l'enfant. 1 °. The evolution of the écriture et ses difficultés, 1979 cit . in Di Brina et al., BHK, 2010)

Dyspraxia: [neuropsychology] disorder that affects the realization of learned motor behaviors, especially those observed at the moment of imitation. It does not depend on a motor system deficit, an intellectual deficit or an attention deficit. It differs from apraxia because the term dyspraxia refers to a disorder observed during development (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology.

Verbal dyspraxia: [language] Central disturbance in the programming and realization of the articulatory movements necessary for the production of sounds, syllables and words and for their sequential organization (Chilosis and Cerri, Verbal dyspraxia, 2009 vd. also Sabbadini, Dyspraxia in developmental age: evaluation and intervention criteria, 2005)

Developmental secondary verbal language disorder: [language] any linguistic inadequacy that occurs during the development period, with relative more or less marked impairment of the language itself, in subjects who have one or more of the following frameworks: cognitive retardation, generalized (pervasive) developmental disorders, serious disorders of auditory function, important socio-cultural discomfort (Gilardone, Casetta, Luciani, The child with speech disorder. Speech therapy evaluation and treatment, Cortina, Turin 2008).

Hemispheric dominance: [neuropsychology] prevalence of one hemisphere over the other in the control of a cognitive or motor function; it is therefore the basis of hemispheric lateralization. Examples are language, typically with left hemispheric dominance, and visuo-spatial processes, with right hemispherical dominance (see also Habib, Hemispheric Dominance, 2009, EMC - Neurology, 9, 1-13)

E

ecolalia: [language] repetition of words or phrases listened to, without necessarily understanding them. It occurs physiologically in children especially at 2-3 years (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37) and pathologically in adults, for example in Parkinson's.

Expectation effect: [statistics] alteration of the results of a research due to the expectation of the results nourished by the researcher or by the experimental subjects themselves. It has been described for the first time by the psychologist Robert Rosenthal so in some cases it is called Rosenthal effect (Or even Pygmalion effect o self-fulfilling prophecy). It is a very important aspect to consider in research in which the human effect is a determining factor and for this reason this effect is often called into question as a critical element in studies on the effects of treatments that do not use an active control group (ie committed in a treatment or alternative to the experimental one) or that do not use any control group.

Mode Effect: [learning] see Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning

Pygmalion effect: you see Learning effect

Placebo effect: [psychology, medicine] improvement given by a therapy without specific effects and linked instead to the trust placed in the therapy itself. This effect, similarly to theExpectation effect, is often an obstacle in research on the effects of treatments and is kept under control by the use of groups of subjects, called their own control groups, to which no treatment is administered or a fake one is administered

Redundancy effect: [learning] see Cognitive Theory of Multimodal Learning

Rosenthal effect: you see Expectation effect

hemianopia: [neuropsychology] loss of vision in half of the visual field (or of a single quadrant in the case of quadrantanopia) following lesions of the optic chiasm, optic tract, optical radiation or visual cortex (see also Ladàvas and Berti, Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014)

Spatial emineglige (See neglect)

Statement: [language] depending on the criterion used, it can be defined as "sound emission between two perceptible pauses (full or empty) lasting at least two seconds" (acoustic criterion), "homogeneous conceptual block, or a simple or complex proposition" ( semantic criterion), "main sentence followed by a series of well-formed secondary ones" (grammatical criterion). (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 69)

Type I error: [psychometry] reject a null hypothesis when this is true.
Example: a researcher speculates that the new language treatment improves the phonological aspects better than routine treatment; after having tested the hypothesis, it refuses H0 (i.e. that the two treatments are equivalent) and accepts H1 (i.e. that the new treatment is better) but in reality the two treatments give the same results and the differences found are related to methodological errors or to the effect of chance (see also Weltkovitz, Cohen and Ewen, Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, 2009).

Type II error: [psychometry] accept the null hypothesis when this is false.
Example: a researcher speculates that the new language treatment improves the phonological aspects better than routine treatment; after having tested the hypothesis, it accepts H0 (i.e. that the two treatments are equivalent) and rejects H1 (i.e. that the new treatment is better) but in reality the two treatments give different results. The lack of results in this case, on the other hand, will depend on methodological errors, slightly discrepant scores due to the effect of the case, or due to the low power of the statistical test (see also Weltkovitz, Cohen and Ewen, Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, 2009).

F

Arithmetic facts: [mathematics] They are the results of arithmetic procedures that do not have to be calculated, but are already possessed in memory. For example multiplication tables and simple sums and subtractions. (Poli, Molin, Lucangeli and Cornoldi, Memocalcolo, 2006: 8)

Fillers: [aphasia] full pauses formed by sounds, phonemes, syllables or fragments of words. They are found mostly in false starts. "Either today is a beautiful day" (see for example Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143)

Phonology: [linguistics] Discipline that studies the phonological competence that a speaker has of his mother tongue, that is, the system that is developing in the early years of a human being's life and in which a difference is established between sounds that distinguish meanings and sounds that do not distinguish them (Nespor, Phonology, 1993: 17)

Color phrase: [language] Method that associates a different color to each element of the sentence (article, subject, verb ...). It can be used for both written sentences and those made with pictograms (see, for example, AA VV, De Filippis speech therapy protocol, 2006).

Fricazione: [language] System process: replacement of an occlusive or affricated sound with a fricative. Example: "fasso" for "fact" (cf. our article on Phonetics and Phonology)

Functors: [linguistics] vd. Open and closed class words

Executive functions: [neuropsychology] complex set of cognitive functions for the planning and voluntary control of behavior, essential in non-automated activities that require important attentional supervision (see also the our article on executive functions; Grossi and Trojano, Neuropsychology of the Frontal Lobes.

G

Gliding: [language] System process: replacement of a consonant with a semiconsonant. Example: "foia" for "leaf" (cf. our article on Phonetics and Phonology)

Batonic gesture: a type of gesture in which the hands move from top to bottom to mark the syllables of a word or the words of a sentence (on the role of gestures see. Fundamentals of speech therapy in developmental age, p. 234)

Serious Acquired Brain injury: [neurology]: "severe acquired brain injury" (GCA) refers to brain damage, due to cranioencephalic trauma or other causes (brain anoxia, hemorrhage, etc.), such as to determine a coma condition (GCS = / < 8 for more than 24 hours), and sensorimotor, cognitive or behavioral impairments, which lead to severe disability (cf. Consensus Conference: Good Clinical Practice in Hospital Rehabilitation of People with Severe Acquired Brain).

Control group: [research methodology] in researches in which it studies the effect of an independent variable on groups of subjects, for example a treatment, the sample is usually divided into at least two subgroups: an experimental group, which receives the treatment under investigation (variable independent), and a control group, which instead does not receive any treatment or receives an alternative one (therefore not subject to the influence of the independent variable). The control group is the one with which the effects of the treatment are compared on the experimental group to reduce the influence of some possible bias (see also Ercolani, Areni and Mannetti, Research In Psychology 2015. ).

I

Cognitive-motor interference: [neuropsychology, multiple sclerosis] phenomenon that is observed during the simultaneous execution of a motor task (for example walking) and a cognitive task (for example saying all the words that begin for a given letter); in these circumstances it is possible to see a reduction in motor, cognitive or both performance. Cognitive-motor interference is particularly studied in the context of multiple sclerosis as it occurs more frequently and more markedly than in the healthy population. (See Ruggieri et al., 2018, Lesion symptom map of cognitive-postural interference in multiple sclerosis).

Cross-modal integration: [neuropsychology] phenomenon that consists of combining information from different sensory channels in a single percept. More precisely, it is a perception that involves the interaction between two or more different sensory modalities (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossmodal).

Confidence interval: [psychometry] is a range of values ​​between two limits (lower and upper) within which a certain parameter (with confidence) is found.
Example: if after I administered WAIS-IV an IQ of 102 emerges with a 95% confidence interval between 97 and 107, this means that at 95% probability the "true" IQ of the person examined is a value between 97 and 107 (see also Weltkovitz, Cohen and Ewen, Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, 2009).

Alternative hypothesis: [psychometry] also indicated with H1. in the research field it is the hypothesis formulated by the researcher and which is intended to be tested.
If, for example, the researcher is convinced that an alternative treatment gives different results than a routine treatment, H1 will represent the existence of this difference between the two different approaches.
It is also defined as that according to which the null hypothesis is false, also specifying the values ​​for a given value of interest (see also Weltkovitz, Cohen and Ewen, Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, 2009).

Null hypothesis: [psychometry] also indicated with H0, in the research field it refers to the hypothesis that is considered true in the absence of contrary evidence that could refute it.
If, for example, it is intended to demonstrate that one treatment is more effective than another, H0 will represent the hypothesis that there is no difference between the two treatments.
It is also defined as the one in which the value of a parameter in the population is made explicit or the expected difference (which usually corresponds to zero) between the parameters of two populations (see also Weltkovitz, Cohen and Ewen, Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, 2009).

L

Average Length of the Statement (LME): [language] Introduced by Brown in 1973, the concept of mean length of the sentence indicates the average of words or morphemes produced by the speaker on a sample - usually - of 100 sentences (see statement). It is one of the indexes of linguistic competence in production (see, Brown, A First language, 1973).

M

Mapping Theory: [aphasia] Hypothesis according to which agrammatic patients, while maintaining good syntactic competence, have difficulty assigning the thematic roles of the constituents of the sentence to the argumentative structure of the verb (cf. Boscarato and Modena in Flosi, Charlemagne and Rossetto, Lto rehabilitation of the person with aphasia, 2013: 57)

Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT): [aphasia] approach to the rehabilitation of aphasia that exploits the melodic aspects of speech (melody and rhythm) through singing (see Norton et al., Melodic Intonation Therapy: Shared Insights on How it is Done and Why it Might Help, 2009)

Working memory: [neuropsychology] System that allows you to temporarily store information to manage or manipulate it (cf. Baddeley and Hitch, Working Memory, 1974). See also our article What is working memory.

Perspective memory: [neuropsychology] ability to remember to perform an action after planning it (see for example, Rouleau et al. Prospective memory impairment in multiple sclerosis: a review, 2017). See also our in-depth article on Perspective memory in multiple sclerosis

Meta-analysis: [statistics] types of statistical analysis that allow to summarize the results of different studies concerning the same topic, trying to reduce the effects of the sources of variability of the results of the individual studies, making any regularities emerge (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology 2015. ).

Metacognition: term referring to awareness about one's own knowledge and, at the same time, the processes and strategies that regulate it (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology 2015. ).

Metafonologia: ability to compare, segment and discriminate words presented orally on the basis of their phonological structure (Bishop & Snowling, Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment: same or different ?, Psychol Bulletin 130 (6), 858-886, 2004)

modeling (See Shaping)

Derivational and inflectional morphemes: derivational morphemes change the meaning of the base (e.g. cas + in + a); inflectional morphemes only change the inflectional categories of words. For example, the gender or number: cas + a (cf. Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 13)

N

neglect: [neuropsychology] neuropsychological syndrome, usually resulting from brain injury, which consists of a deficit in spatial awareness. The person presenting these symptoms shows difficulty in exploring the contralateral space with respect to the brain injury, poor awareness of the stimuli present in a part of the personal space (usually inside), peripersonal or extrapersonal (see also our article Neglect: the dark side of the world)

Unilateral spatial negligence (See neglect)

Mirror neurons: [neuroscience] class of neurons that is activated both when an individual performs an action and when the same individual observes the same action performed by another subject (https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroni_specchio)

O

holophrasis: [linguistics] using a single word for a statement or request that would require an entire sentence. It is typical of the very early development of language in the child. Ex: "cua" for "I want water".

P

paraphasia: [aphasia] word produced incorrectly with respect to a target. Paraphasia can be phonological (eg: "libbium" for "book") or semantic ("notebook" for "book"). (see for example Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143)

Open and closed class words: [linguistics] the words of the open class (or words content) are nouns, qualifying adjectives, lexical verbs and adverbs ending in -mente; closed class words (or function words o functors) are pronouns, non-qualifying adjectives, articles, conjunctions, auxiliary and modal verbs. While the words content convey semantic concepts, the functors express relationships between words.

Phonological Components Analysis: [aphasia] approach proposed by Leonard, Rochon and Laird (2008) which consists in presenting the patient with an image in the center of a sheet with request for recovery of the target word. Regardless of the success, the patient is asked to recover a rhyming word, the first phoneme, another word that starts with the same phoneme and the number of syllables. (see Boscarato and Modena in Flosi, Charlemagne and Rossetto, Lto rehabilitation of the person with aphasia, 2013: 47)

Neuronal plasticity: [neuropsychology] The possibility that nerve cells become capable of performing other functions when necessary. (Gollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, A gym for the mind, 2007: 15).

Statistical test power: [psychometry] means the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis, through a statistical test, when this is actually false.
Example: if a certain test with a certain sample size has a statistical power of 80%, this means that there is an 80% probability of obtaining data that makes us reject the null hypothesis, provided that this is actually false (see also Weltkovitz, Cohen and Ewen, Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, 2009).

System process: [language] Replacement of one phoneme with another, while the syllabic sequence remains unchanged (see, for example, Santoro, Panero and Cianetti, The minimum pairs 1, 2011).

Structure process: [language] Alteration of the syllabic structure of the word, with a change in the quantity of elements and in the sequence of consonants and vowels that constitute it (see for example, Santoro, Panero and Cianetti, The minimum pairs 1, 2011)

Self-fulfilling prophecy: you see Expectation effect

Promoting Aphasics' Communicative Effectiveness (PACE) : [aphasia] pragmatic approach to the treatment of aphasia in which the speech therapist identifies all possible strategies to confirm and reinforce the patient's communication adequacy (see for an overview of Trumpets in Flosi, Charlemagne and Rossetto, Lto rehabilitation of the person with aphasia, 2013: 105 e Charlemagne, Pragmatic approaches to aphasia therapy. From empirical models to the PACE technique, 2002)

Weighted score: [psychometry] arithmetic transformation of the Z score (with mean 0 and standard deviation 1) into a score with mean 10 and standard deviation 3. Compared to a Z score it is therefore different only in appearance but the properties remain the same. Its advantage is that it makes it unlikely that a score with a negative value will occur, even if lower than the average. They are used in various tests such as, for example, NEPSY-II.

Scalar score: [psychometry] arithmetic transformation of the Z score (with mean 0 and standard deviation 1) into a score with mean 10 and standard deviation 3. Compared to a Z score it is therefore different only in appearance but the properties remain the same. Its advantage is that it makes it unlikely that a score with a negative value will occur, even if lower than the average. They are used in various tests such as, for example, the WISC-IV.

Standard Score: [psychometry] score used in several tests (for example in the BVN 5-11) with properties similar to IQ (see also Intellectual Quotient).

T score (T scale): [psychometry] arithmetic transformation of the Z score (with mean 0 and standard deviation 1) into a score with mean 50 and standard deviation 10. Compared to a Z score it is therefore different only in appearance but the properties remain the same. Its advantage is that it makes the occurrence of a score with a negative value unlikely, even if lower than the average (see also Ercolani, Areni and Mannetti, Research In Psychology 2015. ). They are used in various tests such as, for example, the Tower of London.

Z score (standard score): [statistics, psychometry] score indicating how much a value deviates from the expected average, comparing it to the standard deviation. The scores have mean 0 and standard deviation 1 so that a Z score of 0 indicates a value perfectly in line with expectations, a score higher than 0 indicates a value higher than the average and a score lower than 0 indicates a lower value than the average. It is obtained by subtracting the average value from the observed value and dividing everything by the standard deviation of the average: (observed value - half) / standard deviation (see also Welkowits, Cohen and Ewen, Statistics for Behavioral Sciences 2015. ).

Q

Quadranopsia: (you see hemianopia)

R

Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT): [research methodology] is defined as a “truly” experimental research design because it allows complete experimenter control over the variable of interest. It provides that the subjects on which the research is carried out are randomly allocated (randomized) in the experimental group or in the control group so that everyone has the same probability of ending up in one or the other (unbiased groups), thus reducing the probability that the groups are very different from each other, which would cast doubt on the possible effects of the variable of interest (see also Ercolani, Areni and Mannetti, Research In Psychology 2015. ).

Percentile rank: [statistics, psychometry] standardization based on the position that subjects occupy in a distribution of scores on a scale ranging from 1 to 99. They are used in many tests, for example in Italian battery for ADHD (see also Ercolani, Areni and Mannetti, Research In Psychology.

Reality Orientation Therapy (ROT): [neuropsychology] Therapy whose main purpose is to improve orientation over time, in space and with respect to oneself. There is a formal ROT (well-defined series of meetings) and an informal ROT, implemented by non-specialized staff throughout the day. (Gollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, A gym for the mind, 2007: 13)

Reduced Syntax Therapy (REST): [aphasia] Treatment for agrammatic aphasic patients who, instead of focusing on the production of syntactically correct sentences, facilitates the use of simplified structures such as those used colloquially by normal subjects (proposed by Springer et al., 2000; vd. Bass, Know and re-educate aphasia, 2009: 35)

Reformulation [speech therapy]: technique that consists in repeating what the interlocutor has just produced leaving the meaning unchanged but providing the correct model by adding a missing word or replacing a term with a correct or more appropriate one (for more details see "The techniques in intervention" in Fundamentals of speech therapy in developmental age, p. 235)

Reinforcement: [psychology, behaviorism] stimulus that increases or decreases the probability of the appearance of a certain behavior. Reinforcement is divided into four main categories: primary, secondary (or conditioned), positive and negative reinforcement. Primary reinforcements are those associated with survival (food, drink, sleep, sex ...) while secondary reinforcements are neutral starting stimuli that acquire reinforcing value as they are associated with other stimuli that already have a reinforcing power. Positive reinforcements are usually stimuli perceived by the subject as pleasant and increase the probability of a certain behavior with which they associate while negative reinforcements increase the probability of a behavior by ceasing an unpleasant stimulus as a consequence of its implementation (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology 2015. ).

Cognitive reserve: [neuropsychology, aging] set of cognitive strategies, variable from person to person, implemented to contrast or compensate the pathological processes in progress. They depend on the individual characteristics in the neural networks which are in turn influenced by life experiences such as education, occupations and leisure activities (see also Passafiume and Di Giacomo, Alzheimer's dementia 2015. ).

S

Unsorted Phonetic Segments (SFI): [language] (or syllabic, or protomorphemic fillers) occupy a fixed position in the statement and probably fulfill the role of "position markers" of functional components (Bottari et al., Structural inferences in the acquisition of Italian free morphology, 1993, cited in: Ripamonti et al., Lepi: Expressive language of early childhood, 2017)

Semantic Feature Analysis: [aphasia] approach that envisages that the recovery of conceptual information takes place through access to the semantic networks according to the hypothesis that the activation of the semantic characteristics of a target should activate the target itself above its threshold level, facilitating the recovery of the word, with an effect of generalization on other targets that share the same semantic traits (see Boscarato and Modena in Flosi, Charlemagne and Rossetto, Lto rehabilitation of the person with aphasia, 2013: 44).

Sensitivity of the test: [statistics]: ability of the test to identify subjects with a certain characteristic (true positives), for example the presence of dyslexia. In other words, it is the proportion of subjects who, through a test, test positive for a characteristic compared to the total of subjects who actually possess it; taking the example of dyslexia again, sensitivity is the proportion of subjects who at a specific test are dyslexic, compared to the total of those actually dyslexic.
If we call S the sensitivity, A the number of dyslexics correctly identified by the test (true positives) and B the number of dyslexics not detected by the test (false negatives), then the sensitivity can be expressed as S = A / (A + B) .

Shaping: [psychology, behaviorism] Installation by an experimenter of the requested operative response. It consists in systematically reinforcing the behavior of the subject that gradually approaches the response to be obtained (for example, gradually bringing an animal to press a lever) (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology 2015. ).

Attentional shift: [neuropsychology] Shift of attentional focus from one object, or event, to another, both contained in the environment surrounding the subject (Marzocchi, Molin, Poli, Attention and Metacognition, 2002: 12).

Cerebellar Cognitive-Affective Syndrome: [neuropsychology] constellation of cognitive and affective deficits consequent to lesion of the cerebellum. The deficits can be many and concern multiple domains such as working memory, language, executive functions, implicit and procedural learning, visuo-spatial processing, attentional control, affective and behavioral regulation (Schmahmann, The cerebellum and the cognition.

Disconnection syndrome: [neuropsychology] cognitive alterations related to the lesion of the white matter bundles that connect different brain areas (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology 2015. ).

Balint Holmes syndrome: [neuropsychology] neuropsychological syndrome characterized by simultanagnosia (deficit in the identification of a global image when it is composed of multiple objects), oculomotor apraxia (deficit in intentionally directing the gaze towards a point) and optic ataxia (deficit in the movements of achievement with a limb). This syndrome is usually linked to bilateral parieto-occipital lesions (see also Ladàvas and Berti, Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014).

Supervisor Attention System: [executive functions] Norman and Shallice have theorized a model with two functional systems. In the first case it is a routine control system in which the various over-learned behavioral patterns are represented, which are selected in response to environmental stimuli, based on the automatic activation level; in the second case, when automatic selection is not sufficient to activate a specific behavior or such activation is not functional to the specific situation, the Attentional Supervisor System which reshapes the activations of the various behavioral patterns to select the most appropriate one based on the circumstances (see also Mazzucchi, Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2012).

Somatoagnosia: [neuropsychology] loss of awareness of one's body pattern (see also Doron, Parot and Del Miglio, New Dictionary of Psychology 2015. )

Sound: [language] System process: replacement of a deaf sound with the corresponding sound. Example: "bane" for "bread" (cf. our article on Phonetics and Phonology).

Specificity of the test [statistics]: ability of the test to identify subjects who do not possess a certain characteristic (true negatives), for example the absence of dementia. In other words, it is the proportion of subjects who through a test are negative for a characteristic compared to the total of subjects who do not really possess it; taking the example of dementia again, specificity is the proportion of subjects who are healthy (without dementia) at a specific test, compared to the total of those actually healthy.
If we call S specificity, A the number of sane correctly identified by the test (true negatives) and B the number of sane not detected by the test (false positives), then the specificity can be expressed as S = A / (A + B) .

Stereo: [psychology] Relatively constant repetition of one or more series behaviors. They can be of different types: motor, in written or spoken communication, in games, in drawing, etc. (see also Galimberti, New Dictionary of Psychology 2015. ).

stopping: [language] replacement of a continuous phoneme with a non-continuous one (ex: dal per giallo) (cf. our article on Phonetics and Phonology).

subitizing: [neuropsychology] ability to quickly and accurately distinguish a small number of elements (Kaufman et al., The discrimination of visual number.

Sulcus glottidis: [voice] injury caused by invagianation of the mucosa of the vocal cord that creates a sac that creeps into Reinke's space. It is believed to be due to the spontaneous opening of an epidermoid cyst in the early years of life (cf. Albera and Rossi, Otolaryngology, 2018: 251).

T

Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning or CTML: [learning] theory which foresees the existence of two learning channels, one visual and one auditory, each of which has a limited capacity (3 or 4 elements at a time). More different information can be processed, and therefore learned, if it is divided on both channels (visual and auditory) instead of on a single channel (for example, written text and images); this is called mode effect.
If, on the other hand, we provide the same information in a redundant manner on several channels (visual and auditory) instead of just one (for example, auditory), this theory predicts a deterioration in performance linked to an overload of the working memory; this is called the redundancy effect (see also Mayer and Fiorella, Principles for Reducing Extraneous Processing in Multimedia Learning: Coherence, Signaling, Redundancy, Spatial Contiguity, and Temporal Contiguity Principles, 2014)

Token Economy (Token Reinforcement System): [psychology, behaviorism] psychological technique which consists in drawing up a "contract" between a subject and his parent or educator, through which rules are established; a symbolic object (or token) is then given for each correct behavior required by these rules, while any token will be removed or will not be given in case of infringement of the same. Upon reaching a predetermined quantity of tokens, these will be converted into a previously agreed bonus (see also Vio and Spagnoletti, Inattentive and Hyperactive Children: Parent Training, 2013).

V

Validity: [psychometry] degree to which a certain instrument (test) actually measures the variable of interest. It is composed primarily of content validity, criterion validity and construct validity (see also Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, Welkowitz, Cohen and Ewen, 2009).

Negative predictive value: [statistical] posterior probability of a test to estimate the proportion of subjects correctly identified as is not having a characteristic (true negatives) with respect to the total of those that are negative to that same characteristic (true negatives + false negatives). For example, if we were in the presence of a test to identify aphasic subjects, the negative predictive value would be the ratio between the healthy subjects that are correctly identified by the test compared to the total of healthy plus the aphasics that are negative in the test (true healthy + aphasic incorrectly classified as healthy).
If we call VPN the negative predictive value, A the total of correctly identified healthy subjects and B the total of aphasic subjects incorrectly classified as aphasic then we could express the negative predictive value as follows: VPN = A / (A + B).

Positive predictive value: [statistics] posterior probability of a test to estimate the proportion of subjects correctly identified as having a characteristic (true positives) with respect to the total of those that are positive for that same characteristic (true positives + false positives). For example, if we were in the presence of a test to identify aphasic subjects, the positive predictive value would be the ratio between the aphasics that are correctly identified by the test compared to the total of aphasics and non-aphasics that are positive for the test (true aphasics and healthy diagnosed erroneously as aphasic).
If we call VPP the positive predictive value, A the total of correctly identified aphasic subjects and B the total of healthy subjects incorrectly diagnosed as aphasic then we could express the positive predictive value as follows: VPP = A / (A + B).

Vanishing Cues (method of decreasing suggestions): [neuropsychology] memorization technique focused on the progressive decrease of the suggestions regarding the information to be recalled, after a learning phase of the same (see also Glisky, Schacter and Tulving, Learning and retention of computer-related vocabulary in memory-impaired patients: Method of vanishing cues, 1986).

Variance: [statistic] measure of the variability of the scores of a parameter around their own mean; measures how much these values ​​deviate quadratically from the arithmetic mean (see also Vio and Spagnoletti, Inattentive and Hyperactive Children: Parent Training, 2013).

Stretch Marks: [voice] depression of the free margin of the vocal cord with adhesion of the mucosa to the vocal ligament (cf. Albera and Rossi, Otolaryngology, 2018: 251)

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